Class II malocclusion
A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close. The term was coined by Edward Angle, the “father of modern orthodontics”, as a derivative of occlusion, which refers to the manner in which opposing teeth meet.
Classification of Class II malocclusion
Depending on the sagittal relations of teeth and jaws, malocclusions can be divided mainly into three types according to Angle’s classification system published 1899. However, there are also other conditions, e.g. crowding of teeth, not directly fitting into this classification.
Many authors have tried to modify or replace Angle’s classification. This has resulted in many subtypes and new systems.
Class II: Distocclusion (retrognathism, overjet, overbite) In this situation, the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first molar is not aligned with the mesiobuccal groove of the lower first molar. Instead it is anterior to it. Usually the mesiobuccal cusp rests in between the first mandibular molars and second premolars. There are two subtypes:
- Class II Division 1: The molar relationships are like that of Class II and the anterior teeth are protruded.
- Class II Division 2: The molar relationships are Class II but the central are retroclined and the lateral teeth are seen overlapping the centrals.
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